This first link does not contain a recommendation suitable for scientific visualization.
Rather, it is a summary of research on visual displays - including the effect of color on performance.
From the US Army's report on helmet-mounted displays.
"A number of studies have expounded on the positive impact of color on performance. In one of the more comprehensive studies, DeMars (1975) concluded that, for certain applications, color enhanced accuracy, decision time, and workload capability. However, Davidoff (1991) and Dudfield (1991) found that the actual significance of color far outweighed its perceived importance. An investigation (Spenkelink and Besuijen, 1996) of whether the use of color, and the resulting available chromatic contrast, could help improve performance in the presence of low luminance contrast concluded that only under special conditions was there an additive effect, and, in general, chromatic contrast cannot be substituted for luminance contrast. Rabin (1996) compared Snellen and vernier acuity, contrast sensitivity, peripheral target detection, and flicker detection for simulated green (x = 0.331, y =0.618) and orange (x = 0.531, y = 0.468) phosphors. For central visual tasks, no differences were found. However, peripheral target detection was found to be enhanced for the green phosphor."
A few things to keep in mind when reading that report. (1) the environment in which one uses an HMD and a scientific visualization are quite different. (2) most likely, performance outweighs preference when identifying the best design for an HMD, (3) visual appeal and performance may be equally important in scientific visualization, (4) colors selected by military/aviation/nuclear power/maritime system designers are invariably highly saturated colors that are not suitable for commercial software.
The importance of visual appeal can be seen in the absence of an achromatic color scheme in the set provided by the Colorbrewer. These are empirically derived color gradients for use as color fills. They are suitable as fills for maps and charts. The research supporting these colors is not relevant to colors for lines or points.
This is an IBM research report with recommendations for gradients in visualization. Take a look at Table 1. Although several of their recommendations include gray as a starting point, all of the gradients include hue variation.