To step through and come to an answer, look at what the two interaction options get you.
The article is the same length regardless, so really this is about scrolling vs pagination (or similar)
To take out some factors, lets assume you do pagination in a way that doesn't add to load time, its all pre-loaded and your just swapping content.
Lets also look at the mobile device (as far as it acts as an input device). The touch control devices teach users to flick and other gestures to scroll quickly. So scrolling is quite easy for these devices, compared to older devices where I may have to use a button over and over. My assumption is your targeting the former, not the latter.
Another assumption I would make is that if your going to do short pages, they need to fit the screen exactly without scrolling, or it will make the interaction difficult as I am not going between scrolling and pagination. Causing me to change how I view more information.
Benefits of one long page:
I remain in context the entire time I am reading and can go back to reference items without having to remember what page they were on
I can scan an article much quicker (which I am more apt to do perhaps when reading on a mobile device)
Benefits of small pages:
- Keeps information in small consumable chunks (perhaps better for older non-touch devices)
Cons on long pages:
Less optimal for older devices (maybe)
Advertisements reload getting more page views and variation
Cons on short pages:
Content is presented out of context
reduction in scanning speed (especially since we are talking about articles)
I need to realize on each page that there is more content on another page
Many of the same issues as there are with a real newspaper where the rest of an article is in section a3 instead of all in one place.
My vote as it may be obvious is one long page as it seems more natural for an article and allows me to scan quickly and go back and reread without having to page back and forth. Unlike a book I am more likely to consume the information at one time rather than coming back and reading more and more from session to session, where paging may be appropriate to allow me to "bookmark" mentally (or bookmark using a product feature) where I am.
Sorry I don't have any specific research to support but this is how I walked through to my conclusion